Pain and inflammation

38500 - P.A.M. Pressure Application Measurement (PAM)

P.A.M. P.A.M.

The P.A.M. (Pressure Application Measurement) device is a novel tool for measuring mechanical pain threshold. It was specifically designed and validated for Arthritis research and is therefore especially suited to assess joint hypersensitivity in rodents knees or ankles. 

The PAM device can also be used to measure mechanical sensitivity in mice and rats paw, by using a specific Paw Pressure Transducer (optional).

The PAM device t applies a quantifiable force for direct stimulation of the joint and for automatic readout of the response.

The operator simply wears a special force sensor on his or her thumb and the peak amplifier measures the force which elicits the animal response (normally, limb withdrawal).

Each PAM device comes standard with two force sensors, which have been specially designed to apply force to rat and mouse joints.

The device includes as standard both a control unit with internal memory and the NEW DCA software for signal monitoring, data transfer and analysis. Once saved, data can be browsed on the control unit and/or trasferred to a PC in proprietary, Excel (.xls) or text (.txt) format, to be managed by most statistical analysis packages available on the market.

    The force is applied directly to the joint Direct measurent of evoked pain
    Specifically designed for arthritis research The applicators are shaped for rodents knee and ankle
    Paw pressure transducer is an optional PAM can also be used as a hand-held Randall-Selitto device
    • Resolution: 0.1g
    • Maximum applicable Force: 1500g
    • Weight 1.4Kg
    • Shipping Weight 2.7Kg
    • Packing 46x38x27cm

    Arthritis is associated with chronic, debilitating pain in the joints. Current metrics of arthritic pain in animal models are indirect, by scoring the level of motor activity or the animal weight distribution (Barton et al. 2007); while correlating well with the level of joint pain, their metric is a composite picture of complex pain responses, and provides little direct information about local stimulation and locally-evoked responses.

    The quantification of localized joint hypersensitivity is not common in animal experiments; in this sense the PAM device represents a step forward toward multifactorial measurement of pain-related behavior in animal research; the PAM is the first instrument designed specifically to apply force to the joint and automatically detect the animal response.

    38500 PAM, standard package, including the following components:

    38500-001 Electronic Unit

    38500-002 Large Joint Transducer

    38500-003 Small Joint Transducer

    38500-011 DCA Software (on USB Key)

    38500-302 Instruction Manual (on USB Key)

    38500-303 Pedal Switch

    All components lodged in a dedicated plastic case


    38500-006 Paw Transducer

    38550 PAM, high-pressure model for large animals


    Weight 1.4 Kg (in the plastic case)

    Shipping weight 2.7 Kg

    Packing 46x38x27cm

    Shipping Weight 27.50 Kg approx

    See Additional Bibliography

    • T.J. Nutter et alia: “A Delayed Chronic Pain Like Condition with Decreased KV Channel Activity in a Rat Model of Gulf War Illness Pain Syndrome” NeuroToxicology 51: 67-69, 2015
    • D. Amorim et alia: “Amitriptyline reverses hyperalgesia and improves associated mood-like disorders in a model of experimental monoarthritis” Behav. Brain Res 265: 12-21, 2014
    • S. Mohammadi et alia: “α9-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Contribute to the Maintenance of Chronic Mechanical Hyperalgesia, but not Thermal or Mechanical Allodynia” Molecular Pain 10(64): 1-9, 2014
    • B. Cooper: “Synergistic Actions of Pyridostigmine Bromide and Insecticides on Muscle and Vascular Nociceptors” DTIC Document, Jan 2014
    • T. Schwagarus et alia: “A New Method for Measuring CFA-induced Mechanical Hyperalgesia in the Rat” Evotec 2012
    • J. Leuchtweis et alia: “Validation of the Digital Pressure Application Measurement (PAM) Device for Detection of Primary Mechanical Hyperalgesia in Rat and Mouse Antigen-Induced Knee Joint Arthritis...” Methods & Findings in Exp. & Clinical Pharmacol., 32(8): 581-589, 2010
    • 38550: P.M. Raundal et alia: “Pre-Test Habituation Improves the Reliability of a Handheld Test of Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold in Dairy Cows” Res. In Vet. Science 102: 189-195, 2015
    • 38550: P. Di Giminiani et alia: “Capsaicin-induced Neurogenic Inflammation in Pig Skin: A Behavioural Study” Res. In Vet Science 96(3): 447-453, 2014
    • 38550: P. Di Giminiani et alia: “Nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical stimulations in awake pigs” Eur. J. Pain 17(5): 638-648, 2013



    The PAM device was invented and validated in the University of Edinburgh by the team of Prof. Daniel McQueen, Susan Bond and colleagues and Dr. Harry Brash, who built the first prototypes.


Related items by application

  • Plethysmometer, measurement of paw volume and oedema
    The first and original device designed specifically to measure paw volume and its changes (swelling) in rodents. Almost 3000 bibliographic citations since the 1960s!
  • Rodent Treadmill NG
    Ugo Basile introduces an original TREADMILL for rats and mice. The same device is suitable for tests on either rats…
  • Hot/Cold Plate NG
    The new Hot/Cold Plate NG offers a wide temperature range, presettable in the range -5°C to 65°C and is very…
  • Rat RotaRod NG
    The “Rota-Rod” technique is essential in screening drugs potentially active, or having side effects, on motor coordination. Ugo Basile designed the…
  • Orofacial Stimulation Test (Fehrenbacher, Henry, Hargreaves method)
    The Orofacial Stimulation Test by Ugo Basile is a new method to measures hypersensitivity to thermal or mechanical stimulation of…